Anyone with XRD tokens on the Radix Public Network can participate in staking, and earn emissions rewards. Unlike many blockchain networks where most rewards are reserved for a relatively small set of “miners”; on Radix, rewards to individual XRD stakers are actually the primary incentive – no need to run a physical node. Staking to protect network security is very important, so we’ve made it as straightforward and rewarding as possible.
Anybody may stake XRD (also called “delegation of stake”) at any time, to any number of validators of their choice. Staking XRD is done via a special type of transaction, and we’ve made this easy to do with just a few clicks in the Radix Desktop Wallet app (instructions below). The current list of validators to choose from can be found on the Radix Explorer website.
To avoid issues with spamming a large number of small stakes, a minimum amount of 90 XRD per stake transaction is required – a small amount we expect will not pose a barrier to anyone who wishes to stake.
Choosing which validator nodes to stake your XRD to has important implications for both your own rewards and the security and performance of the network. Staking to a low-performance node may lead to reduced or no emissions rewards, for example.
A staker may request an unstake of any amount of their XRD tokens at any time after at least one epoch switch has happened (which happen about every 30-90 minutes). When requesting an unstake, they must wait an unstaking delay time before they are available for use. This includes stake that the staker wishes to move to a different validator; they must perform an unstake, wait for the delay to complete for the XRD to become available, and then stake them elsewhere.
The unstaking delay is a fixed number of epochs (500 to be exact) that add up to a total of roughly 1-3 weeks of delay, depending on network speed. The delay is required for network security reasons; essentially, there must be enough time provided to ensure that any bad behavior by a node (using the stake delegated to them) can be detected and punished. On Olympia, 1-3 weeks is estimated to be sufficient to detect such bad behavior confidently. Much shorter delays may be proposed to the community later once more automated mechanisms become available.
When a staker requests an unstake, they will stop receiving rewards for the stake starting in the epoch immediately following the unstake request. This means the stake will still earn rewards for the full epoch in which the unstake request was submitted.
Requesting an unstake of tokens will also be a matter of a few clicks in the Radix Desktop Wallet, selecting from a listing of current stakes.
Once you have logged into your Radix Desktop Wallet, you will be greeted with the following screen.
To stake your XRD click Stake & Unstake in the left-hand navigation menu.
At the top of the screen, you will have the option to select Stake Tokens or Request Unstake. Select whichever is appropriate. (see below)
Before you can participate in staking, you will need to select which validator(s) you will delegate stake of XRD to. Choosing which validator nodes to stake your XRD to has important implications for both your own rewards and the security and performance of the network so we suggest you consult our guide on How to Select a Validator. You can also engage with potential validators via the Radix Validators Subreddit or on our #node-runners channel on Discord.
The current list of validators can be found by clicking View all Validators at the top right of the Stake & Unstake page, it takes you to the Radix Explorer website.
Using the Radix Explorer, copy the address of your chosen validator (using the small copy icon to the right of all validator addresses), and paste it into the Validator field of the wallet’s Stake page.
Enter the amount of XRD you wish to stake in the Amount section. Your available XRD is displayed for convenience. The minimum stake is 90 XRD per transaction.
Once you have entered all fields correctly the Stake button will turn from grey to green. You will be asked to confirm the transaction with your PIN.
To confirm the transaction, enter your PIN and click Confirm Transaction
You will now be directed to the History page, allowing you to view the transaction. You can also view the transaction in the Radix Explorer by clicking the small arrow in the right-hand column.
(Your tokens are still held by you. Delegating your tokens just places them in a special “staked” state. A validator cannot steal or refuse to return your staked XRD)
The Balances page will now show the staked amount. You can also view current stakes from the Stake & Unstake page.
To unstake XRD click Stake & Unstake from the left side navigation bar before selecting Request Unstake.
Enter the validators address you wish to unstake from, followed by the amount. The address will be the same as you used initially and can be found via the Radix Explorer. You can copy the validators address by clicking the area highlights by a red box.
XRD staked to a validator is displayed in the right-hand column of the Stake & Unstake page under Current Stakes. You can add or reduce the amount you have staked to a validator by clicking add stake or reduce stake.
This will automatically populate the required fields. Input the amount you wish to stake or unstake and click Request Unstake.
You will be asked to input your PIN to confirm the transaction.
Once done, you will again be shown the History page.
Note: When unstaking, there is a 1-3 week delay, depending on network speed. This delay is required for network security. Full details can be found in the Staking & Validating on Radix.